출처 : http://www.packetinside.com

네트워크 상에서 많이 쓰는 도구중에 하나가 PING 이 아닐까 생각합니다. 네트워크가 안된다면 일단 PING 을 통해서 확인을 시도해 보니까 말이죠. 네트워크에 PING 이 있다면, 디스크에는 IO Latency 를 확인해 볼 수 있는 IOPING 이 있습니다. 세부 정보는 다음 경로에서 확인할 수 있습니다.


https://code.google.com/p/ioping/

다운 받아보면 아주 간단하게 구성되어 있습니다.

# ls
ioping.1  ioping.c  ioping.spec  Makefile

Makefile 이 이미 존재하므로 바로 make 를 해주면 컴파일이 됩니다.

# make
cc -std=c99 -g -Wall -Wextra -pedantic -D_GNU_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -DVERSION=\"0.6\" -c -o ioping.o ioping.c
cc -o ioping ioping.o -std=c99 -g -Wall -Wextra -pedantic -D_GNU_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -lm

실행해 보면 아래와 같은 도움말을 볼 수 있습니다.

# ./ioping
 Usage: ioping [-LCDRq] [-c count] [-w deadline] [-p period] [-i interval]
               [-s size] [-S wsize] [-o offset] device|file|directory
        ioping -h | -v

      -c <count>      stop after <count> requests
      -w <deadline>   stop after <deadline>
      -p <period>     print raw statistics for every <period> requests
      -i <interval>   interval between requests (1s)
      -s <size>       request size (4k)
      -S <wsize>      working set size (1m)
      -o <offset>     in file offset
      -L              use sequential operations (includes -s 256k)
      -C              use cached I/O
      -D              use direct I/O
      -R              seek rate test (same as -q -i 0 -w 3 -S 64m)
      -q              suppress human-readable output
      -h              display this message and exit
      -v              display version and exit


따로 메뉴얼이 없어도 대략 어떤 의미인지가 추정이 됩니다. 그만큼 사용법이 간단하다는 의미가 되겠죠.

# ./ioping /dev/sda6 
4096 bytes from /dev/sda6 (device 309.1 Gb): request=1 time=14.5 ms
4096 bytes from /dev/sda6 (device 309.1 Gb): request=2 time=5.3 ms
4096 bytes from /dev/sda6 (device 309.1 Gb): request=3 time=9.3 ms
4096 bytes from /dev/sda6 (device 309.1 Gb): request=4 time=7.5 ms
4096 bytes from /dev/sda6 (device 309.1 Gb): request=5 time=6.3 ms
4096 bytes from /dev/sda6 (device 309.1 Gb): request=6 time=9.0 ms
^C
--- /dev/sda6 (device 309.1 Gb) ioping statistics ---
6 requests completed in 5645.3 ms, 116 iops, 0.5 mb/s
min/avg/max/mdev = 5.3/8.6/14.5/3.0 ms

실행해 보면 ping 에서 보던 것과 유사하게 출력이 됩니다. 더 이상 다른 설명은 안 드려도 될것 같네요. :-)
IO latency 를 실시간으로 확인할 필요가 있으신 분들은 참고하시기 바랍니다.

=============

덧붙여서 Ubuntu 사용자는 apt-get install ioping 하면 우분투 리포지터리 에서 제공하는 ioping을 어렵지 

않게 설치할수 있네요.. 

신고

일반적으로 레드햇 계열 (RedHat, CentOS, SUSE Linux)에서 패키지 관리에 사용되는 강력한 기능중에 YUM
기능은 패키지 의존성 (Dependency)를  고려해서 안전하게  패키지를 설치 구성이 가능한데 , 데비안 계열의
리눅스의 경우는 apt-get (Advanced Packaging Tool)이라고 하는 아주 쓸만한 놈이 있네요  다음과 같이 레드햇 계열의 리눅스에서 사용하고 있는 YUM과 비교해서 정리해 봅니다.

1. deb 패키지 정보에 대한 인덱스 저장소

apt-get은 패키지들에 대한 인덱스  정보를 기반으로  패키지 리스트를 가져오는데  yum의 repository와 유사한것으로 판단해도 무리는 없을듯 합니다.

경로는 : /etc/apt/sources.list


#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 12.10 _Quantal Quetzal_ - Release amd64 (20121017.5)]/ quantal main restricted

# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.
deb http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted
deb-src http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted


## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted
deb-src http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted


## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal universe
deb-src http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal universe
deb http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates universe
deb-src http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal multiverse
deb-src http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal multiverse
deb http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates multiverse
deb-src http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates multiverse

## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://kr.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu quantal-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu quantal-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu quantal-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu quantal-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu quantal-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu quantal-security multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
# deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu quantal partner
# deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu quantal partner

## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by third-party
## developers who want to ship their latest software.
deb http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu quantal main
deb-src http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu quantal main


2. apt-get 을 이용한 패키지 설치 하기

이제 본격적으로  우분투에서 제공하는 apt-get을 이용한  패키지 설치는 진행해 봅니다. 아래와 같은 단계로 필요한 부분에 대해서 설치를 적절하게 진행 해보는 것도 도움이 됩니다.


2.1 패키지 설치와 업데이트

sudo apt-get install [패키지 명] : 설치하고자 하는 패키지를 검색하여 설치를 진행
sudo apt-get upgrade : 패지키들에 대한 업그레이드 진행
sudo apt-get update : 전체 패키지를 검색하여  업데이트 대상의 패키지들을 자동 업데이트
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade : 패키지 업그레이드시 우선 의존성을 검증한후 설치를 진행
sudo apt-get --reinstall [패키지명] :  재설치 하고자 하는 패키지를 설치

2.2 패키지 검색 및 삭제

sudo apt-cache search [Package Name] : 원하는 패키지를 검색하고자 할때 사용
sudo apt-get remove [Package Name] : 원하는 패키지를 삭제하고자 할때 사용
sudo apt-get source [Package Name] : 원하는 패키지의 소스 코드를 받고자 할때 사용
sudo apt-get build-dep [Package Name] : OnLIne에서 받은 패키지를 ㅏ현시스템의 의존성에 맞게 빌드
sudo apt-cache show [Package Name] : 원하는 패키지들에 대한 상세정보 볼수 있다.

apt-get 으로 설치된 모든 패키지 들은  아래의 경로에 따라 자동 저장이 됩니다. 나중에 설치된 우분투 패키지를
찾고자 할때  유용하게 확인할수 있습니다.

deb package path : /var/cache/apt/archive


신고

음..오랬동안 레드햇 계열 리눅스만 써왔던터러 여러가지 스크립트며 설정파일에 대한 부분이 아직은 익숙하지는 않은데 뭐..별다를게 있겠습니까. 시간이 지나면 익숙해 지겠지요.정말 놀라운 것은 문서화가 잘되어 있다는 점도 일단은 마음에 들고 하나둘씩 중요한 것들 정리해 나가면 레드햇 계열처럼 익숙해 지겠죠 .. 

1. eth0에 대한 장치정의 

일단 우분투의 네트워크 인터페이스 스크립트 파일은 /etc/network/interfaces 파일을 

편집해야 하죠

 == eth0 Static IP Addre Configuration == 

 auto eth0

 iface eth0 inet static

 address 192.168.1.5

 netmask 255.255.255.0

 gateway 192.168.1.254

 dns-nameservers XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX


 == eth0 DHCP IP Address Configuration == 

 auto eth0 

 iface eth0 inet dhp 

위와 같이 설정한 후에 네트워크를 내렸다가 다시 올리는 방식으로 재기동 해주면 되는군요 

 # /etc/init.d/networking restart


2. How to Set up Interfaces 

우분투 리눅스의 네트워크 인터페이스에 대한 정의에 대한 파일을 확인해볼 필요도 있을듯 합니다. 
스크립트 파일은 /usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples 파일이 있으며 network-interfaces.gz 파일을 압축을 해제하면 아래와 같은 network interfaces에 대한 구성 예배파일이 나옵니다. 참고해 보시죠 

######################################################################

# /etc/network/interfaces -- configuration file for ifup(8), ifdown(8)

#

# A "#" character in the very first column makes the rest of the line

# be ignored. Blank lines are ignored. Lines may be indented freely.

# A "\" character at the very end of the line indicates the next line

# should be treated as a continuation of the current one.

#

# The "pre-up", "up", "down" and "post-down" options are valid for all

# interfaces, and may be specified multiple times. All other options

# may only be specified once.

#

# See the interfaces(5) manpage for information on what options are

# available.

######################################################################

# We always want the loopback interface.

#

# auto lo

# iface lo inet loopback

# An example ethernet card setup: (broadcast and gateway are optional)

#

# auto eth0

# iface eth0 inet static

#     address 192.168.0.42

#     network 192.168.0.0

#     netmask 255.255.255.0

#     broadcast 192.168.0.255

#     gateway 192.168.0.1

# A more complicated ethernet setup, with a less common netmask, and a downright

# weird broadcast address: (the "up" lines are executed verbatim when the

# interface is brought up, the "down" lines when it's brought down)

#

# auto eth0

# iface eth0 inet static

#     address 192.168.1.42

#     network 192.168.1.0

#     netmask 255.255.255.128

#     broadcast 192.168.1.0

#     up route add -net 192.168.1.128 netmask 255.255.255.128 gw 192.168.1.2

#     up route add default gw 192.168.1.200

#     down route del default gw 192.168.1.200

#     down route del -net 192.168.1.128 netmask 255.255.255.128 gw 192.168.1.2

# A more complicated ethernet setup with a single ethernet card with

# two interfaces.

# Note: This happens to work since ifconfig handles it that way, not because

# ifup/down handles the ':' any differently.

# Warning: There is a known bug if you do this, since the state will not

# be properly defined if you try to 'ifdown eth0' when both interfaces

# are up. The ifconfig program will not remove eth0 but it will be

# removed from the interfaces state so you will see it up until you execute:

# 'ifdown eth0:1 ; ifup eth0; ifdown eth0'

# BTW, this is "bug" #193679 (it's not really a bug, it's more of a

# limitation)

#

# auto eth0 eth0:1

# iface eth0 inet static

#     address 192.168.0.100

#     network 192.168.0.0

#     netmask 255.255.255.0

#     broadcast 192.168.0.255

#     gateway 192.168.0.1

# iface eth0:1 inet static

#     address 192.168.0.200

#     network 192.168.0.0

#     netmask 255.255.255.0

# "pre-up" and "post-down" commands are also available. In addition, the

# exit status of these commands are checked, and if any fail, configuration

# (or deconfiguration) is aborted. So:

#

# auto eth0

# iface eth0 inet dhcp

#     pre-up [ -f /etc/network/local-network-ok ]

#

# will allow you to only have eth0 brought up when the file

# /etc/network/local-network-ok exists.

# Two ethernet interfaces, one connected to a trusted LAN, the other to

# the untrusted Internet. If their MAC addresses get swapped (because an

# updated kernel uses a different order when probing for network cards,

# say), then they don't get brought up at all.

#

# auto eth0 eth1

# iface eth0 inet static

#     address 192.168.42.1

#     netmask 255.255.255.0

#     pre-up /path/to/check-mac-address.sh eth0 11:22:33:44:55:66

#     pre-up /usr/local/sbin/enable-masq

# iface eth1 inet dhcp

#     pre-up /path/to/check-mac-address.sh eth1 AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF

#     pre-up /usr/local/sbin/firewall

# Two ethernet interfaces, one connected to a trusted LAN, the other to

# the untrusted Internet, identified by MAC address rather than interface

# name:

#

# auto eth0 eth1

# mapping eth0 eth1

#     script /path/to/get-mac-address.sh

#     map 11:22:33:44:55:66 lan

#     map AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF internet

# iface lan inet static

#     address 192.168.42.1

#     netmask 255.255.255.0

#     pre-up /usr/local/sbin/enable-masq $IFACE

# iface internet inet dhcp

#     pre-up /usr/local/sbin/firewall $IFACE

# A PCMCIA interface for a laptop that is used in different locations:

# (note the lack of an "auto" line for any of these)

#

# mapping eth0

#    script /path/to/pcmcia-compat.sh

#    map home,*,*,*                  home

#    map work,*,*,00:11:22:33:44:55  work-wireless

#    map work,*,*,01:12:23:34:45:50  work-static

#

# iface home inet dhcp

# iface work-wireless bootp

# iface work-static static

#     address 10.15.43.23

#     netmask 255.255.255.0

#     gateway 10.15.43.1

#

# Note, this won't work unless you specifically change the file

# /etc/pcmcia/network to look more like:

#

#     if [ -r ./shared ] ; then . ./shared ; else . /etc/pcmcia/shared ; fi

#     get_info $DEVICE

#     case "$ACTION" in

#         'start')

#             /sbin/ifup $DEVICE

#             ;;

#         'stop')

#             /sbin/ifdown $DEVICE

#             ;;

#     esac

#     exit 0

# An alternate way of doing the same thing: (in this case identifying

# where the laptop is is done by configuring the interface as various

# options, and seeing if a computer that is known to be on each particular

# network will respond to pings. The various numbers here need to be chosen

# with a great deal of care.)

#

# mapping eth0

#    script /path/to/ping-places.sh

#    map 192.168.42.254/24 192.168.42.1 home

#    map 10.15.43.254/24 10.15.43.1 work-wireless

#    map 10.15.43.23/24 10.15.43.1 work-static

#

# iface home inet dhcp

# iface work-wireless bootp

# iface work-static static

#     address 10.15.43.23

#     netmask 255.255.255.0

#     gateway 10.15.43.1

#

# Note that the ping-places script requires the iproute package installed,

# and the same changes to /etc/pcmcia/network are required for this as for

# the previous example.

# Set up an interface to read all the traffic on the network. This

# configuration can be useful to setup Network Intrusion Detection

# sensors in 'stealth'-type configuration. This prevents the NIDS

# system to be a direct target in a hostile network since they have

# no IP address on the network. Notice, however, that there have been

# known bugs over time in sensors part of NIDS (for example see

# DSA-297 related to Snort) and remote buffer overflows might even be

# triggered by network packet processing.

#

# auto eth0

# iface eth0 inet manual

# up ifconfig $IFACE 0.0.0.0 up

#       up ip link set $IFACE promisc on

#       down ip link set $IFACE promisc off

#       down ifconfig $IFACE down

# Set up an interface which will not be allocated an IP address by

# ifupdown but will be configured through external programs. This

# can be useful to setup interfaces configured through other programs,

# like, for example, PPPOE scripts.

#

# auto eth0

# iface eth0 inet manual

#       up ifconfig $IFACE 0.0.0.0 up

#       up /usr/local/bin/myconfigscript

#       down ifconfig $IFACE down


3. 온라인 패키지 검색

일반적으로 레드햇 계열의 리눅스 운영체제에서는 yum search 기능을 많이 쓰고는 했는데 데비안
계열인 우분투에서는 다음과 같은 명령어를 날리면 아름답게 deb 패키지를 검색해 오네요.우분투 
업무 시스템을 운영하는 운영자 입장에서는 아~~~~주 유용할듯..

 # apt-cache [Package Name] 


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